COVID-19 Resources

Image: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – A digital illustration of the coronavirus shows the crown-like appearance of the virus.

In the public’s interest and because of uncertainty and fake news, we’ve opened up this site to include the sharing of carefully curated scientific and government reports on #Covid-19COVID-19 is a new illness that can affect your lungs and airways. It’s caused by a virus called coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2).  Our goal is to inform, not to alarm, and to provide a resource for people to use. Please note that the science is evolving, and the information is updated as it comes.

In this article, Dr. Nirmal Jivan Shah, Nature Seychelles Chief Executive, expounds on the reasoning behind this effort: An Interview with Dr. Nirmal Jivan Shah on Nature Seychelles’ new awareness and educational resource on COVID-19

Potential vulnerability of COVID-19

An antibody recovered from a survivor of the SARS epidemic in the early 2000s has revealed a potential vulnerability of the new coronavirus at the root of COVID-19.

Published in Science, the study is the first to map a human antibody’s interaction with the new coronavirus at near-atomic-scale resolution. Although the antibody was produced in response to an infection of SARS, which is caused by the SARS-CoV virus, it cross-reacts with the new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2.

Link to study: https://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2020/04/02/science.abb7269.full

The FDA-approved Drug Ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro

Study showed that a single dose of the drug, Ivermectin, could stop the SARS-CoV-2 virus growing in cell culture – effectively eradicating all genetic material of the virus within 48 hours. Ivermectin is an anti-parasitic drug that has also been shown to be effective in vitro against a broad range of viruses including HIV, Dengue, Influenza and Zika virus.

Link to study: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166354220302011

Coronavirus can infect cats — dogs, not so much

Cats can be infected with COVID-19 and can spread it to other cats, but dogs are not really susceptible to the infection, say researchers in China. The team, at Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, also concludes that chickens, pigs, and ducks are not likely to catch the virus. Other scientists say the findings are interesting but note the results are based on lab experiments in which a small number of animals were deliberately given high doses of the virus, SARS-CoV-2, and do not represent real-life interactions between people and their pets.

Link to article: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-00984-8

Correlation between universal BCG vaccination policy and reduced morbidity and mortality for COVID-19: an epidemiological study

A preprint of a study says that countries with mandatory policies to vaccinate against tuberculosis register fewer coronavirus deaths than countries that don’t have those policies.

Link to article: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/340263333_Correlation_between_universal_BCG_vaccination_policy_and_reduced_morbidity_and_mortality_for_COVID-19_an_epidemiological_study

Assessment of Narratives and Disinformation Around the COVID-19 Pandemic – EU vs DISINFORMATION

Disinformation and misinformation around COVID-19 continue to proliferate around the world, with potentially harmful consequences for public health and effective crisis communication. In the EU and elsewhere, coordinated disinformation messaging seeks to frame vulnerable minorities as the cause of the pandemic and to fuel distrust in the ability of democratic institutions to deliver effective responses.

Link to article: https://euvsdisinfo.eu/eeas-special-report-update-short-assessment-of-narratives-and-disinformation-around-the-covid-19-pandemic/

Rational use of face masks in the COVID-19 pandemic

Comparison of face mask use recommendations by different health authorities. Despite the consistency in the recommendation that symptomatic individuals and those in health-care settings should use face masks, differences in recommendations were observed for the general public and community settings. Evidence that face masks can provide effective protection against respiratory infections in the community is scarce. However, face masks are widely used by medical workers as part of droplet precautions when caring for patients with respiratory infections. The study suggests vulnerable individuals avoid crowded areas and use surgical face masks rationally when exposed to high-risk areas. 

Link to article: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanres/article/PIIS2213-2600(20)30134-X/fulltext

Social distancing strategies for curbing the COVID-19 epidemic | medRxiv

In this pre-print a team from Harvard using mathematical model found that one-time interventions will be insufficient to maintain COVID-19 prevalence within the critical care capacity of the United States. Seasonal variation in transmission will facilitate epidemic control during the summer months but could lead to an intense resurgence in the autumn. Intermittent distancing measures can maintain control of the epidemic, but without other interventions, these measures may be necessary into 2022.

Link to article: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.22.20041079v1

Meteorological factors and Covid-19 incidence in 310 regions across the world

This study analyzed l data from 311 regions across 116 countries with reported cases of COVID-19 by March 12, 2020, and found that temperature, humidity, and wind speed were inversely associated with the incidence rate of Covid-19. This means that it is likely that as temperature, humidity and wind speed increase the spread of COVID-19 decreases.

Link to article: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.27.20045658v1

Mobility traces and spreading of COVID-19

The authors have built human mobility models, for which they are experts, and attach a virus infection dynamics to it. This results in a virus spreading dynamics model. The preliminary model shows that complete lockdown works. About 10 days after lockdown, the infection dynamics die down in the model. Infections in public transport play an important role, they say. The simulations say that complete removal of infections at child care, primary schools, workplaces and during leisure activities will not be enough to sufficiently slow down the infection dynamics.

Link to article: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.27.20045302v1

A mathematical model of COVID-19 transmission between frontliners and the general public | medRxiv

This study formulates a conceptual mathematical model on the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 between the frontliners (e.g. healthcare workers, customer service and retail personnel, food service crews) and the general public. The take-home message of this preliminary model is that everyone in the community, whether a frontliner or not, should be protected or should implement preventive measures to avoid being infected.

Link to article: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.27.20045195v1

Role of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine in the Treatment of COVID-19 Infection- A Systematic Literature Review | medRxiv

This is a systematic literature review summarizing the available evidence regarding the role of chloroquine in treating coronavirus infection. It says there is theoretical, experimental, preclinical and clinical evidence of the effectiveness of chloroquine in patients affected with COVID-19. There is adequate evidence of drug safety from the long-time clinical use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in other indications. More data from ongoing and future trials will add more insight into the role of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 infection it concludes.

Link to article: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.24.20042366v1

Association of Cardiac Injury With Mortality in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19 in Wuhan, China

New study in JAMA Cardiology says COVID-19 can not only be deadly for people with existing heart conditions, but it can also cause cardiac injury for people without pre-existing heart conditions. The study looked at 416 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in Wuhan, China and found that 19.7% suffered a cardiac injury, which put them at higher risk for a fatal version of Coronavirus.

Link to article: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamacardiology/fullarticle/2763524

Genetic variants of COVID-19

There are several genetic strains of COVID-19 circulating around the world. Information is found on NextStrain, an online resource for scientists that uses data from academic, independent and government laboratories all over the world to visually track the genomics of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. It currently represents genetic sequences of strains from 36 countries on six continents.

Link to article: https://nextstrain.org

A map of the main known genetic variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 disease. The map is being kept on the nextstrain.org website, which tracks pathogen evolution.

Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses: systematic review

A wide-ranging study points out that simple public health measures seem to be highly effective at reducing the transmission of respiratory viruses. It recommends implementing the following interventions: frequent handwashing (with or without antiseptics), barrier measures (gloves, gowns, and masks), and isolation of people with suspected respiratory tract infections.

Link to article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2190272/

What is the evidence for loss of smell and loss of taste as a clinical feature of COVID-19?

The authors are of the opinion that evidence regarding the complete loss of smell, or anosmia and the loss of taste or dysgeusia in people who had no other symptoms but who tested positive for COVID-19 are mostly anecdotal and therefore should be treated as preliminary and with caution.

Link to article: https://www.cebm.net/covid-19/what-is-the-evidence-for-anosmia-loss-of-smell-as-a-clinical-feature-of-covid-19/

Loss of sense of smell as marker of COVID.pdf

A Statement from ENT UK at The Royal College of Surgeons of England, the association of ear, nose and throat physicians in the United Kingdom says a growing body of data from COVID-19 patients in several countries strongly suggests that “significant numbers” of those patients experienced the complete loss of smell known as anosmia as one of the disease’s symptoms.

Link to PDF: Loss of sense of smell as marker of COVID.pdf 

Covid 19 information for workplaces

We wish to share materials of relevance to workplaces that may help with:

·         General education of all staff (general education – Covid 19.pdf) to better prepare themselves to take the required precautions and adopt safe behaviours.

Link to PDF: general education – Covid 19.pdf

·         Guidance for workplaces on how best to prepare for Covid 19 ( Covid 19 advice for workplaces 3.0.pdf ).

Link to PDF: Covid 19 advice for workplaces 3.0.pdf

·         Two local posters on Covid 19.

Identifying SARS-CoV-2 related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins

A new paper, 26 March, describes multiple lineages of pangolin coronavirus and their similarity to the SARS-CoV-2. A previous study had suggested that Pangolins could be intermediate hosts.  Although bats are likely reservoir hosts for SARS-CoV-2, this study says that pangolins should be considered as possible hosts in the emergence of novel coronaviruses and should be removed from wet markets to prevent zoonotic transmission. The study was done on Malayan pangolins (Manis javanica) seized in anti-smuggling operations in southern China. Pangolins are the world’s most trafficked animals. 

Link to article: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2169-0

The SARS, MERS and novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemics, the newest and biggest global health threats: what lessons have we learned?

This paper finds that Inadequate risk assessment regarding the urgency of the situation, and limited reporting on the virus within China has, in part, led to the rapid spread of COVID-19. Compared with SARS and MERS, COVID-19 has spread more rapidly, due in part to increased globalization and the focus of the epidemic. The conclusion is that we did not learn from the two prior epidemics of coronavirus and were ill-prepared to deal with the challenges the COVID-19 epidemic has posed. Future research should attempt to address the uses and implications of the internet of things (IoT) technologies for mapping the spread of infection.

Link to paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32086938

Expert comment about COVID-19 and having sex while either socially distancing or self-isolating with symptoms

Prof Paul Hunter, Professor in Medicine, University of East Anglia, U.K, talks to the Science Media Centre on whether its advisable expert to have sex while either socially distancing or self-isolating with symptoms.

Link to article: https://www.sciencemediacentre.org/expert-comment-about-covid-19-and-having-sex-while-either-socially-distancing-or-self-isolating-with-symptoms/

We shouldn’t worry when a virus mutates during disease outbreaks

Mutation. The word naturally conjures fears of unexpected and freakish changes. Ill-informed discussions of mutations thrive during virus outbreaks, including the ongoing spread of SARS-CoV-2. In reality, mutations are a natural part of the virus life cycle and rarely impact outbreaks dramatically say virologists writing in the journal Nature Microbiology.

Link to article: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-020-0690-4

Are viruses alive?

 Viruses are kind of mysterious – there is debate on whether on not they are “alive”.  At a basic level, viruses are proteins and genetic material that survive and replicate within their environment, inside another life form. In the absence of their host, viruses are unable to replicate and many are unable to survive for long outside the host. Therefore, if they cannot survive independently, can they be defined as being ‘alive’? Taking opposing views, two microbiologists discuss how viruses fit with the concept of being ‘alive’ and how they should be defined.

Link to article: https://microbiologysociety.org/publication/past-issues/what-is-life/article/are-viruses-alive-what-is-life.html

WHO launches global megatrial of the four most promising coronavirus treatments

An article from the publishers of Science on 22 March on WHO megatrials. WHO is focusing on what it says are the four most promising therapies: an experimental antiviral compound called remdesivir; the malaria medications chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine; a combination of two HIV drugs, lopinavir, and ritonavir; and that same combination plus interferon-beta, an immune system messenger that can help cripple viruses. 

Link to article: https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/03/who-launches-global-megatrial-four-most-promising-coronavirus-treatments

Twitter thread on Chloroquine (CQ) and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) by Dr. Gaetan Burgio

Unusually, we include a Twitter feed here as it represents a good analysis of the efficacy of the antimalarial drug chloroquine as a treatment for COVID-19. It is from Dr. Gaetan Burgio, a geneticist at the Australian National University who dug into the available & published data and reveals that as of this date the evidence remains anecdotal and a clinical trial is incomplete and not following scientific rigour. More research is needed.

Link to Twitter thread: https://twitter.com/GaetanBurgio/status/1241201751916568576

NIH clinical trial of investigational vaccine for COVID-19 begins

March 17, 2020. A clinical trial of investigational vaccine for COVID-19 has begun.  Phase 1 clinical trial evaluating an investigational vaccine designed to protect against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has begun at Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute (KPWHRI) in Seattle. Currently (March 17, 2020) no approved vaccines exist to prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2.

Link to article: https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/nih-clinical-trial-investigational-vaccine-covid-19-begins

How to stop future pandemics in 3 easy steps

While many of us are social distancing and self-quarantining, we have a lot of time to wonder, how did we get in this coronavirus mess in the first place? The answer is a zoonotic disease – a disease that can leap from animal to human. In order to prevent future pandemics, we need to change our relationship with wildlife. So what does that mean exactly?

1. Stop wildlife trade
2. Stop wildlife consumption
3. Stop destroying nature

Link to article: https://www.treehugger.com/health/how-stop-pandemics-3-steps.html

Public Health Responses to COVID-19 Outbreaks on Cruise Ships — Worldwide, February–March 2020

More than 800 cases of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases occurred during outbreaks on three cruise ship voyages, and cases linked to several additional cruises have been reported across the United States. Transmission occurred across multiple voyages from ship to ship by crew members; both crew members and passengers were affected; 10 deaths associated with cruise ships have been reported to date.

Link to article: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6912e3.htm

Relationship between the ABO Blood Group and the COVID-19 Susceptibility

A new study shows people with blood group A have a significantly higher risk for acquiring COVID-19 whereas blood group O has a significantly lower risk for the infection. However, the paper has not been peer-reviewed yet. This means it has yet to be evaluated and so should not be used to guide clinical practice or to promote the results.

Link to article: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.11.20031096v1

18 – Pandemics: Health Care Emergencies

This book chapter reviews the available mental health literature concerning the most impactful global infectious disease outbreaks. Case examples are used to illustrate mental health consequences. An overview of public health response and management of pandemic is reviewed throughout various disaster phases, and focused issues regarding mental health intervention planning for pandemics are discussed.

Link to review: https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/textbook-of-disaster-psychiatry/pandemics-health-care-emergencies/478824C480288A8935798FBF151D96FA

Mental Health and Faith Community Partnership

This article describes the Mental Health and Faith Community Partnership which is a collaboration between psychiatrists and clergy. The partnership provides an opportunity for psychiatrists and the mental health community to learn from spiritual leaders, to whom people often turn in times of mental distress. At the same time, it provides an opportunity to improve understanding of the best science and evidence-based treatment for psychiatric illnesses among faith leaders and those in the faith community.

Linke to article: https://www.psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/cultural-competency/engagement-opportunities/mental-health-and-faith-community-partnership

The H1N1 Crisis: A Case Study of the Integration of Mental and Behavioral Health in Public Health Crises

This paper looks at the H1N1 Crisis as a Case Study for the Integration of Mental and Behavioral Health in the epidemics of this kind.

Link to paper: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/disaster-medicine-and-public-health-preparedness/article/h1n1-crisis-a-case-study-of-the-integration-of-mental-and-behavioral-health-in-public-health-crises/2DAAA72D6C23DD920F906B29C1300BAC

The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence

Decisions on how to apply quarantine should be based on the best available evidence. This paper reviews the psychological impact of quarantine using three electronic databases. Results show that in situations where quarantine is deemed necessary, officials should quarantine individuals for no longer than required, provide a clear rationale for quarantine and information about protocols, and ensure sufficient supplies are provided.

Link to article: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30460-8/fulltext  

PDF: The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence

Response to COVID-19 in Taiwan Big Data Analytics, New Technology, and Proactive Testing

Shows Taiwan as an example of how a society can respond quickly to a crisis and protect the interests of its citizens. Taiwan’s government learned from its 2003 SARS experience and established a public health response mechanism for enabling rapid actions for the next crisis. Well-trained and experienced teams of officials were quick to recognize the COVID-19 crisis and activated emergency management structures to address the emerging outbreak.

Link to article: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762689

Will the Coronavirus Ever Go Away? Here’s What One of the WHO’s Top Experts Thinks

Time magazine interviews Dr. Bruce Aylward, the senior adviser to the Director-General of the WHO, is one of the world’s top officials in charge of fighting the coronavirus pandemic. Dr. Aylward has almost 30 years of experience in fighting polio, Ebola and other diseases, and now he’s turned his attention to stopping the spread of COVID-19.

Link to article: https://time.com/5805368/will-coronavirus-go-away-world-health-organization/

China Syndrome: The True Story of the 21st Century’s First Great Epidemic

Not a paper or report but a very well researched book written by someone on the front lines. “China Syndrome is a fast-moving, truth-is-stranger-than-fiction thriller that doubles as an excellent primer of emerging infections for scientists and laypeople alike. Beyond the superb writing, is a detailed look at China’s culture of secrecy in the throes of a global public health crisis”

Link to book: https://www.amazon.com/China-Syndrome-Story-Centurys-Epidemic/dp/0060587237

An interactive web-based dashboard to track COVID-19 in real time

Paper on an online interactive dashboard, hosted by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA, to visualise and track reported cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in real-time. 

Link to text: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(20)30120-1/fulltext

PDF: An interactive web-based dashboard to track COVID-19 in real time

Decoding evolution and transmissions of novel pneumonia coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) using the whole genomic data

Phyloepidemiologic analyses indicated the SARS-CoV-2 source at the Hua Nan market should be imported from other places. The crowded market boosted SARS-CoV-2 rapid circulations in the market and spread it to the whole city in early December 2019. 

Link to Study: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339351990_Decoding_evolution_and_transmissions_of_novel_pneumonia_coronavirus_SARS-CoV-2_using_the_whole_genomic_data

Impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to reduce COVID-19 mortality and healthcare demand

The Imperial College report that made the UK government change track. It says population-wide social distancing applied to the population as a whole would have the largest impact, and in combination with other interventions – notably home isolation of cases and school and university closure – has the potential to suppress transmission to rapidly reduce case incidence.

Impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to reduce COVID-19 mortality and healthcare demand
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